History, Politics

Gandhism and its legacy

Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi, most popular name of modern India and also refer as a Father of Nation, made indelible impression among millions of Indians with his weapons of non violence and truth. I have read his autobiography which was written in excellent english and signifies his writing capabilities. It was ” Lage raho Ho Munna Bhai” revived the essence of Gandhism and non violence at this very age of violence.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar on 2 October 1869 in Hindu Modh community. His father was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state.At the age of 13 Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturbai in traditional arranged marriage. Later, he moved to England for the completion of Law. Later came back to India and left for south Africa for practicing Law. Gandhiji was actively participated in the Civil rights movement in South Africa for the protection of Indians and black’s rights. Gandhi had been inspired by American Henry Thoreau civil disobedience movement and made a great mark.

Gandhiji arrived India at 1915 and is said to be avid follower of Gokhale, famous congress moderate. We should observe the structure of congress party before Gandhi became active at mainstream politics. Extremist wing comprises Tilak, B.C Pal, Lajapath rai, Sri Aurobindo were the leading forces of Indian freedom struggle. Interesting aspect is this people were highly inspired by Hindu vedanta and tried to mix the concept of Indian freedom struggle with Mystified vedanta. There was a crisis between moderates and extremists whether to opt violence or non violence for the congress party stand in liberation of India. After political retirement of Sri Aurobindo, Tilak’s incarceration at Burma weakened Extremists attempts.

Gandhiji captured congress and implemented strategies in a non violent methods and he was succeeded for getting freedom for India. But Gandhiji’s attitude towards Bhagat Singh, Subash Chandra Bose and Ambedkar are enough controversial in Indian history. Historians opine, Gandhiji could have escape Bhagat Singh from hanged to death by negotiating with Britishers. Mild response observed among congress moderates even after the brutal death of Bhagath Singh and desecration to his body by the tyranny Britishers. Subash chandra Bose was elected as Indian National Congress president in 1939 tripura session by defeating Pattabi Seeta Ramayya who was supported by Gandhi and Nehru with a huge margin. Congress seniors and Gandhian supporters were reluctant to extend co operation to Netaji. Netaji had to quit office and from presidentship of INC. Later Netaji resigned from congress and fled away to Japan via Germany in a miraculous heroic escape. Gandhiji even called parents not to send their children for the recruitment of Netaji’s INA  (Indian National Army). Despite having ideological difference with Gandhi, Netaji didn’t hesitate to praise the heroism and credibility of Gandhi by referring him as a “MAHATMA” in radio  which used to broadcast from Germany.

History, Philosophy

Allopanishad

Allopanishad is a pseudo upanishad which purportedly injected among valid upanishads. Sri Aurobindo, Dayananda Saraswati and Swami Vivekananda ruled out the validity of Allopanishad (ALLA+UPANISHAD) by citing ‘Mukthikopanishad’ which endorses the list of 108 valid upanishds.

They have claimed that this must have been written during Akbar regime when he started Din Illa-hi religion(mixture of Hinduism and Islam) which couldn’t attract people.

Akbar grand son Dara Shikoh was an avid reader of Upanishads and Vedanta who concluded and supported the similarities between Islam’s oneness of god and Vedanta’s Brahma description. He has translated 50 Upanishads in Persian with the help of acclaimed  poet Jaganath Pandit.

 

The Upanishads are many, and said to be one hundred and eight, but some declare them to be still larger in number. Some of them are evidently of a much later date, as for instance, the Allopanishad in which Allah is praised and Mohammed is called the Rajasulla. I have been told that this was written during the reign of Akbar to bring the Hindus and Mohammedans together, and sometimes they got hold of some word, as Allah, or Illa in the Samhitâs, and made an Upanishad on it.

So in this Allopanishad, Mohammed is the Rajasulla, whatever that may mean. There are other sectarian Upanishads of the same species, which you find to be entirely modern, and it has been so easy to write them, seeing that this language of the Samhitâ portion of the Vedas is so archaic that there is no grammar to it

– Swami Vivekananda in ‘Lectures from Colombo to Almora’

~ If you have not read the Atharva Veda, come to us and look through its pages from beginning to end, or you may go to any person who knows that book and read with him all the verses given in its twenty chapters. You will never find the name of your Prophet in it.

And as regards Allopanishad it is not given in the Atharva Veda or in its ancient commentary, called the Gopath Braahama or in any of its Shaakhaas (branches). We surmise that some one wrote it in the reign of the Emperor Akbar. Its author appears to have been a man who knew a little of Sanskrit and Arabic, because in its text both Sanskrit and Arabic words occur. For example, the Arabic words Asmallam Ille and the Sanskrit words Mitra and Varuna occur in the above passage and the same is seen throughout the whole book.

– Swami Dayananda in ‘Satyartha Prakash

 

Some of the Upanishads are, no doubt, quite modern, for mention is made even of an Allahupanishad.

Max Muller in ‘Upanishads’ Page lxvii

 

Pandit Satyabrata Samasrami mentions even an Allopanishad, or the Upanishad of Allah, the shameless production of some sycophant of the Mussalman rulers of India.

–  Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, poet of Vandematram in ‘Bankim Racanavali’ lll:l68


In the days of Akbar an Upanishad was again composed with the object of converting Hindus into Musulmans — and it was called Allopanishad. How strange !.

Devendra Nath Tagore (father of Rabindra Nath Tagore and Brahma Samaj pioneer) in  The autobiography of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore

On the occasion of Akbar Badshah’s coronation, these Yogis recited Allopanishad in vedic metres and blessed him. His favourite Queen Devi Choudharani recited these mantras while doing Tulsi Puja, praying for his long life.

Indian literature: Volume 41 , page 175, Sahitya Academy

 

Allopanishad Alläsüktam  probably the work of a Hindu converted to Islam.

Albrecht Weber, famous German Indologist, in  ‘Indische Streifen, eine Sammlung von bisher in Zeitschriften ( Indian Strip, a collection of far smaller papers in journals)’

 

Some upanishads are written by self-seeking Brahminism as demanded by expediency and when emperor Akbar was toying with the idea of a new religion Dil-Il- Adi, the Brahmins had written for him, a new upanishad called Allopanishad.

S. N. Sadasivan in ‘A social history of India’  –Page 178

 

Even the contention that a certain Allopanishad, pointing to a Vedic reference of Allah and the prophet Mohammed, is authoritative is shown to be a falsification.

The Quarterly review of historical studies:

Page no 27, Volume 28 , 1988, Calcutta, India.

 

Allopanishad Islamic Works Allopanishad, also known as Alia Upanisad, is a celebrated work of Sanskrit literature. It was written by a Hindu courtier (16th Century) of Emperor Akbar, which was an apocryphal chapter of the Atharvaveda.

N.Singh in ‘Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Pali Literature’

Volume 1 Page 40

Texts called “Upanishads” continued to appear up to the end of the British rule in 1947. The Akbar Upanishad and Allah Upanishad are examples having been written in the 17th century, at the instance of Darah Shikoh, in praise of Islam

    – Harry Oldmeadow   in  ‘Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom                           for  the Modern West’ – Page 37

Some count up to 200 Upanishads, others up to 100. Barth says that the number of the Upanishads may go up to 250, including the Allah Upanishad that was composed at the time of Akbar

      – Anthony Elenjimittam in ‘The Upanishads: Isa, Katha,

Mundaka, Mandukya’  Page 10

Over the centuries, new upanishads have been composed.Thus, for example, in the 17th century the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan’s Son wanted an Upanishad to be written dedicated to Allah, the Islamic nomenclature for God. This gave rise to the Allopanishad.

–     Raman Varadara in

Glimpses of Indian Heritage – Page 70