History, Philosophy

Allopanishad

Allopanishad is a pseudo upanishad which purportedly injected among valid upanishads. Sri Aurobindo, Dayananda Saraswati and Swami Vivekananda ruled out the validity of Allopanishad (ALLA+UPANISHAD) by citing ‘Mukthikopanishad’ which endorses the list of 108 valid upanishds.

They have claimed that this must have been written during Akbar regime when he started Din Illa-hi religion(mixture of Hinduism and Islam) which couldn’t attract people.

Akbar grand son Dara Shikoh was an avid reader of Upanishads and Vedanta who concluded and supported the similarities between Islam’s oneness of god and Vedanta’s Brahma description. He has translated 50 Upanishads in Persian with the help of acclaimed  poet Jaganath Pandit.

 

The Upanishads are many, and said to be one hundred and eight, but some declare them to be still larger in number. Some of them are evidently of a much later date, as for instance, the Allopanishad in which Allah is praised and Mohammed is called the Rajasulla. I have been told that this was written during the reign of Akbar to bring the Hindus and Mohammedans together, and sometimes they got hold of some word, as Allah, or Illa in the Samhitâs, and made an Upanishad on it.

So in this Allopanishad, Mohammed is the Rajasulla, whatever that may mean. There are other sectarian Upanishads of the same species, which you find to be entirely modern, and it has been so easy to write them, seeing that this language of the Samhitâ portion of the Vedas is so archaic that there is no grammar to it

– Swami Vivekananda in ‘Lectures from Colombo to Almora’

~ If you have not read the Atharva Veda, come to us and look through its pages from beginning to end, or you may go to any person who knows that book and read with him all the verses given in its twenty chapters. You will never find the name of your Prophet in it.

And as regards Allopanishad it is not given in the Atharva Veda or in its ancient commentary, called the Gopath Braahama or in any of its Shaakhaas (branches). We surmise that some one wrote it in the reign of the Emperor Akbar. Its author appears to have been a man who knew a little of Sanskrit and Arabic, because in its text both Sanskrit and Arabic words occur. For example, the Arabic words Asmallam Ille and the Sanskrit words Mitra and Varuna occur in the above passage and the same is seen throughout the whole book.

– Swami Dayananda in ‘Satyartha Prakash

 

Some of the Upanishads are, no doubt, quite modern, for mention is made even of an Allahupanishad.

Max Muller in ‘Upanishads’ Page lxvii

 

Pandit Satyabrata Samasrami mentions even an Allopanishad, or the Upanishad of Allah, the shameless production of some sycophant of the Mussalman rulers of India.

–  Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, poet of Vandematram in ‘Bankim Racanavali’ lll:l68


In the days of Akbar an Upanishad was again composed with the object of converting Hindus into Musulmans — and it was called Allopanishad. How strange !.

Devendra Nath Tagore (father of Rabindra Nath Tagore and Brahma Samaj pioneer) in  The autobiography of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore

On the occasion of Akbar Badshah’s coronation, these Yogis recited Allopanishad in vedic metres and blessed him. His favourite Queen Devi Choudharani recited these mantras while doing Tulsi Puja, praying for his long life.

Indian literature: Volume 41 , page 175, Sahitya Academy

 

Allopanishad Alläsüktam  probably the work of a Hindu converted to Islam.

Albrecht Weber, famous German Indologist, in  ‘Indische Streifen, eine Sammlung von bisher in Zeitschriften ( Indian Strip, a collection of far smaller papers in journals)’

 

Some upanishads are written by self-seeking Brahminism as demanded by expediency and when emperor Akbar was toying with the idea of a new religion Dil-Il- Adi, the Brahmins had written for him, a new upanishad called Allopanishad.

S. N. Sadasivan in ‘A social history of India’  –Page 178

 

Even the contention that a certain Allopanishad, pointing to a Vedic reference of Allah and the prophet Mohammed, is authoritative is shown to be a falsification.

The Quarterly review of historical studies:

Page no 27, Volume 28 , 1988, Calcutta, India.

 

Allopanishad Islamic Works Allopanishad, also known as Alia Upanisad, is a celebrated work of Sanskrit literature. It was written by a Hindu courtier (16th Century) of Emperor Akbar, which was an apocryphal chapter of the Atharvaveda.

N.Singh in ‘Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Pali Literature’

Volume 1 Page 40

Texts called “Upanishads” continued to appear up to the end of the British rule in 1947. The Akbar Upanishad and Allah Upanishad are examples having been written in the 17th century, at the instance of Darah Shikoh, in praise of Islam

    – Harry Oldmeadow   in  ‘Light from the East: Eastern Wisdom                           for  the Modern West’ – Page 37

Some count up to 200 Upanishads, others up to 100. Barth says that the number of the Upanishads may go up to 250, including the Allah Upanishad that was composed at the time of Akbar

      – Anthony Elenjimittam in ‘The Upanishads: Isa, Katha,

Mundaka, Mandukya’  Page 10

Over the centuries, new upanishads have been composed.Thus, for example, in the 17th century the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan’s Son wanted an Upanishad to be written dedicated to Allah, the Islamic nomenclature for God. This gave rise to the Allopanishad.

–     Raman Varadara in

Glimpses of Indian Heritage – Page 70

History, Philosophy

Dayananda,Vivekananda & Sri Aurobindo – Trinity of Indian nationalism

 

Hinduism has witnessed two remarkable trinities who made  astounding impact on Sanathana Dharma.

First trinity comprises Shankara Charya, Ramanuja Charya and Vallaba charya, exponents of Adwaitha, Dwaitha and Visistadwaitha philosophies,  in 8th-10th centuries. Hinduism, which was on the verge of collapse with the impact of Buddhism, was saved by those trinity and successfuly defended with new schools of philosophies like vedanta and vaishnava bhakthi from socio-cultural attacks of Buddhism.

In the end of 19th century, Hinduism had to face  similar scenario of “pre shankara charya age”, and was in crisis due to various  cultural attacks in the form of blasphemy, conversions and missionary expansions. Mother India (Bhawani Bharti) , to defend and save herself,  bore another trinity in the form of Dayananda, Vivekananda and Aurobindo.

Trio, second trinity of Hindu reformism and renaissance, made a great impact on contemporary Hindu society to great extent with their charismatic knowledge and influence. In this article, iam trying to explain  similarities and differences in their idealogy. I feel, it is my immense pleasure  to write something(which I know) about those great personalities who stood as real inspiration for my staunch nationalistic stand.

Vedas :  Dayananda,Vivekananda & Sri Aurobindo expressed their devotion and attachment to Vedas and termed they were  real source of Hinduism. But, Dayananda gave much importance to Vedas by leaving Upanishads. While, Vivekananda  stressed  importance for Upanishads than Vedas. Sri Aurobindo, has gave equal importance to Vedas and Upanishads. But, Aurobindo, being a exponent of Integral yoga and life divine theory with the vision of ‘Superman’, have some reservations on Vedanta philosophy explained by Shankara Charya.

Puranas : Dayananda rebuked puranas and their creation of various avatars of shiva Vishnu and Kaali. According to Dayananda, Rama and Krishna were great human beings and infact divine personalities but not gods/avathars. While, Vivekananda, despite raised several questions on authenticity and validity of Puranas, could not discard Puranas from Hinduism. Here, Aurobindo made an interesting interpretation. He opined, Puranas were more as a poetry or valuable literature which made an attempt to explain the historical hindu events and avathars. In the words of Sri Aurobindo, Puranas  have explained the esoteric vedic spirit and philosophy of sanathana dharma by using both fiction and non fiction.

CULT  :  Dayananda did not preach any particular cult like Vaishnava,Shaktha or Shaiva and he vehemently opposed Idol worship to the core. Being a pupil of Sri Ramakrishna, Vivekananda has viewed god in both ‘sakaara’ and ‘niraakara’. But, he has supported idol worship particularly Kaali. Here, we could find striking similarity between Vivekananda and Sri aurobindo. Both were kaali worshippers, Vivekananda trated his Guru Sri Ramakrishna as an avathar of Rama and Krishna,  while Sri Aurobindo viewed his spiritual collaborator ‘Mirra’ as an avathar of Kaali/Durga.  Here, another interesting aspect here is, some inmates of Sri Aurobindo Ashram also refer Sri Aurobindo as divine incarnation of Sri Krishna.

Vivekananda and Aurobindo on Dayananda : An interesting aspect here is, they never met,  though they were almost  contemporaries. Swami Dayananda, who was busy in touring India, met Ramakrishna Paramahamsa in Calcutta. Nothing unusual/interesting conversion recorded neither from Aryamaj nor from RK Muth in that great meeting of two revered sages. Swami Vivekananda, after arriving India by accomplishing Mission chicago, toured extensively from Almora to Colombo. He has gave lectures on vedanta in various Arya samaj branches across India. Vivekananda has shown great respect towards Swami Dayananda for his efforts of reigniting vedic spark. But, swami Vivekananda could not welcome Dayananda stands of opposing idol worship and meat eating. Sri Aurobindo, as like Swami Vivekananda,  has also shown huge respect and devotion towards Swami Dayananda. He  even wrote a series of articles on Dayananda, which later published as ‘Bankim Tilak Dayananda’. Here, we could find some similarities between Dayananda and Aurobindo, as both have admonished the present Hindu ritual system. In one of the articles, Sri Aurobindo referred present Hindu system as ‘Vulgarized and Buddhicised edition’ by re-echoing the words of Swami Dayananda.

Sri Aurobindo on Vivekananda : It was Sri Aurobindo, who gave concrete and final shape to concept of  patriotic nationalism advocated by both Dayananda and Vivekananda. Aurobindo has made plethora of references on Vivekananda in his series of articles published in Karmayogin magazine. Sri Aurobindo Ashram has published a special booklet on Aurobindo references and quotations on Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Paramahasa.  Sri Aurobindo, who could not meet Vivekananda personally,  is said to have guided by Swami Vivekananda through Yoga during  his stay at Alipore Jail. There were huge number of interesting indirect relationships and impact between Aurobindo and Vivekananda. Aurobindo was aided by Vivekananda brother and pupil Sister Nivedita in Vandematram movement. We do not know, why Nivedita took part in active politics by keeping away from RK Muth. Why she had to accompany Sri Aurobindo ?  Was it a wish of Vivekananda ? We cannot rule out above questions by considering  Vivekananda appearance to Sri Aurobindo in Alipore Jail when he was in deep sadhana.

Mrunalini Devi, wife of Sri Aurobindo, was direct disciple of Sharada Matha and also a  devotee of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Vivekananda. Sharada Matha, holy mother and wife of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, used to refer Mrinalini as daughter in law by treating Sri Aurobindo as her son. Sharada Matha, during Sri Aurobindo’s  incarceration in Alipore Jail,  prophesied Sri Aurobindo’s acquittal and  spiritual enlightenment. I will give another interesting version,  there were slight  ideological differences between Aurobindo followers and Vivekananda followers in Bengal.  Sri Aurobindo, who came across those differences,  has stressed his pupils not to oppose Ramakrishna movement and even asked not to maintain conflicts with RK Muth at any cost. This was a perfect instance of Sri Aurobindo’s  respect and devotion towards Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Holymother.

Aryasamaj, RK Muth and Aurobindo Ashram views on Hindu Nationalism :  Aryasamaj, among those organizations, is the only organization which claim itself as a champion of Hindu thought or Hindhutva or vedic revivalism. RK Muth and Aurobindo Ashram try to say that both Vivekananda and Aurobindo ideologies were not just confined to  Hinduism and beyond that. Like RK Muth & Aurobindo Ashram, most of the popular movements of Hindu renaissance and reformisms, including ISKCON, reluctant to  prefer the tag of Hinduthva /Hindu nationalism due to various socio-cultural-political issues and popular misconceptions.